Registered in U.S. Patent OMice “—

\ AN INTERNATIONAL

DAILY NEWSPAPER

= VOLUME. 49 NO.72

. revi sn a ROSTON =

TU.

- Fureolo Challenged

ia bor Fires Salvo Against Sales Tax

By Edgar M. Mills New England Political Correspondent of The Christian Science M onitor

Governor Furcolo’s proposed 3 per cent limited sales tax is running into powerful labor op- position.

First product of a $10,000 labor drive against the tax is a new pamphlet put out by the Massa- chusetts Federation of Labor urging state income-tax revi- sions instead of a sales tax, a withholding system of state in- come-tax collection, and taXa- “tion of rental income, One hun- dred thousand of the pamphlets detailing the federation’s opposi- tion to the sales tax are being distributed.

Its publication comes at a time when Governor Furcolo is pre- paring to take his sales-tax case to the people via a statewide talking tour.

Meanwhile, a group of 10 tax experts from -Greater Boston civic and business groups is hard at work trying to develop a for- mula under which 75 million dollars of the estimated $112,- 500,000 limited sales-tax yield would be distributed to the cities and towns in such a way as to assure use of all or most of the revenue to cut local real-estate taxes.

Realty Taxes Scanned

_. These. groups. are__ strongly backing a sales tax as the only solution to state and local rev- enue needs. But they, like the Governor, want reduction of real-estate taxes to be a major product of the sales tax. Without that, they would be cool to the sales-tax idea.

Already both sides are chal- lenging each other's revenue estimates of rival plans for taxes. The labor. federation insisted in its pamphlet that the pro- posed limited sales tax would not produce as much as 40 million dollars ‘annually, let alone the $112,500,000 yield es- timated by Governor Furcolo,

It is understood that the latter estimate is the considered opin- ion of a score of tax experts consulted by the Governor in his search for the revenue he considers necessary to solve state and local revenue prob- lems.

Furcolo-Labor Split

Publication of the labor pam- phliet emphasizes the seriousness of the split between the Gov- ernor and this segment of or- --ganized.labor over the sales tax, long violently opposed by union leaders.

The federation has. adopted almost completely the tax pro- gram proposed by Prof. Arnold M. Soloway, Harvard economist, in a survey for the Massachu- setts Chapter, Americans for Democratic Action.

It favors elimination of fed- eral income-tax payments as an

“think «bout:

allowed deduction on state in- come-tax returns, to yield 20 million dollars annually, —It favors taxing of rental income to yield 10 million dollars. It proposes to gain another 10 mil- lion dollars through a withhold- ing system applied to state in- come-tax collections and closing of other loopholes to catch those persons now escaping the canal income tax.

Thus it does not indicate the revenue yield but it would have | to be about 40 million dollars a year to produce the total extra

revenue the federation says is needed.

Estimate Challenged The federation pamphlet |

|

| |

Cn

sharply disputes Governor Fur- |

colo’s estimate that about 130 rnillion dollars is needed. It puts it this way:

“The state needs more taxes to do an intelligent job of gov- ernment. How much? Hold your breath—the Governor has asked

the Legislature for 130 million |

dollars more than the 368 mil-

lion dollars we were nicked for |

in 1956.

“But that figure is much too high. Eighty million dollars is more realistic and more likely. Part of this certainly can come from increased efficiency and economy. The remainder will } have to come from new taxes.”

Arguing against the sales tax, |

the federation outlined several reasons:

“Easy to legislate into law, it’s

peculiarly difficult and costly! . to administer—a big new army |

of enforcement officers would be required for one thing

age”™!).

Rough on. Retailers

“It’s rough on retailers,

par- ticularly the small ones,

who

would be responsible, of course, |

for collection, payment, and an- other barrel of paper work—to say nothing of the business they would lose.

tion medicine empted, there’s a strong ten- dency—when more revenue is | required to tack the tax on even these,

“The general sales tax favors higher income groups; hurts low | income groups. Something to “600,600 -~workers covered by the state minimum wage laws in Massachusetts, about. one-quarter of our total.| work force, earn less than $1.00 | an hour $40 for a 40-hour | week, $2,080 in a year. How | hard should they be hit by new taxes? The sales tax will whack

them. The income tax does not. |

What better reason for being against the sales tax?”

(and | there. is. always..a—lot of-“leak--

| withdraw “Although food-and prescrip- | WELDOr Awa

are usually ex- ‘vegans g vernment in the spring.

'Marosan made Feb. riade at that time, it might well

now

tility of armed resistance

,|be faced

| Drawn by Emi! Weiss for The Christian Sctence Monitor

ARAB DELEGATES IN _ Left to right are Sheik Saleh

UNITED NATIONS SPOTLIGHT:

Shalfan of Saudi Arabia; Rafik

|

Red Rulers Tighten

Vienna

Hungary’s Stalinist - Commu- nist Government has removed the last doubt of an early end of ‘Soviet occupation and has made it plain that it intends to stay in power, relying on the support of Soviet tanks and troops.

Only six weeks ago Commu- nists in Hungary were encour- aging speculation that a Soviet might follow the formation of a more broadly

Red Star Hoisted

Had the statement of “no re-

treat from the Stalin line,” which Minister of State Georgy 16, been have led to another fiare-up. it has been swallowed in silence. This is partly because the patriots have learned the fu- and

Yet

bécause Premier Janos

arth |Kadar’s regime anyway has got

things in hand for the moment.

These unpalatable facts must in the West. All the clocks’in Budapest now are rap-=

State of the Nations

These Changing Times—4

By JOSEPH C. HARSCH, Special Cerrespondent of The Christian Science Monitor

Washington

Officially...for..all..govern- ments concerned Europe is still divided at the Elbe. The armed forces of the Soviet Union are on one side of it and the Western Allies on the . other, exactly as they have been ever since 1945. .

There was once a theory that this* condition would change only when Moscow and Washington got together

and agreed to remove. their... ~— B “te HAVE “TS adjust’ Ttsé®’ to

~ troops.

Washington and Moscow are still unwilling, or unable, to agree to any such removal, but this no longer prevents Europe from taking on a new . shape .and -form:.underneath

-the -official pattern of the division,

} eee

Even the treimposition of police terror in Hungary has not totally severed people in that country from Western Europe. Hungarian refugees in London telephone their friends and relatives in Hun- gary as freely as they tele- phone each other in England —or did until the rates went

p.

One of the more fascinat- ing and typical changes is the attitude of Poland and West Germany toward each other. On the surface they be- long to opposite ideological camps and their official gov- ernment pronouncements still do the perfunctory snarling at each other which became pro forma during the cold war.

But a Polish journalist can f£0 to West Germany freely, far more freely than he can go to Moscow. Trade is rising between them faster than either would care to admit publicly. The only reason they have not resumed diplomatic relations is because it would be a trifle too startling, and, besides, there are enough in- formal contacts to make the official exchange of ambassa- dors a matter of lesser mo- ment,

Poland ‘has firmly closed out the old trade patterns imposed on it by Moscow dur-

-

ing the Stalin period. One re- sult has been an end to the unrequited shipment of Polish coal to East Germany. This, in turn, has forced a sudden and drastic recasting of the whole outlook of the East German Government.

The Ulbricht-Grotewohl re- gime there no longer can maintain itself out of eco- nomic aid ordered in by Mos- cow at the expense of Poland and Hungary. It, too, is going

actualities. All along the old “curtain” trade channels are opening up almost daily. Ideas flow with trade.

If the armed forces of the great power rivals. were with-

Iron Softener

drawn from Germany tomor- row there is little doubt about what would happen. The two Germanys would come to- gether.

The real question now is whether the result can long be prevented even by keeping the armies there. The armies stay, but trade cannot be pre- vented, and is not being pre- vented. Germany is growing together underneath the offi- cially still open wound of di- vision, just as Germany and Poland are drawing together under the officially main- tained fiction of membership in hostile and rival camps.

The official division in Ger- many certainly will continue at least until after the September elections in Ger- many. Chancellor Adenauer

wants it that way, so far as anyone. knows... Washington would not want to interfere with his own concept of how best to run his election cam- paign: Washington and Lon- don, for “der Alte’s” sake, are going to maintain at least the skeleton of their armed forces in Germany during the summer and fall of this year of 1957. *

But increasingly the. official

Situatjan::.. becomes. aw: fietion.

bearing less and less resem- blance to reality. Poland has been- an breaker of supreme impor- tance to the Europe of 1957. It has evolved a formula which

permits a European country |

to be European again while retaining the superficial ap- pearance of membership in the Soviet bloc. It couldn’t happen and yet it has hap- pened.

One of the many intriguing aspects of the matter ® the extent of the vast conspiracy of those who work at main- taining the fiction.

| RES eS

Leading Polish exiles such |

as General Anders in London and Mikolajezyk in Washing- ton must continue to de- nounce the existing Polish Government regardless . of their personal feelings in the matter. Were they to give public and official blessings to Gomulka, they might destroy him.

Thus those who would like to see Gomulka survive with his fantastic formula must condemn tain him,

When the time comes for) a Washington-Moscow agree- | ment to end the artificial di-

vision of Europe, the deed will |

not be the beginning of a new state of affairs. It will merely | be a ceremony which will put | fiction in line with fact.

One can only wonder why it | takes the diplomats of Wash- ington and Moscow so long to find ways and means of allow- | ing the realities of Euro find expression in official form.

ice- | iterms of which now are being | Assembly | negotiated. ‘nomic

im in order to sus- |

Grasp on Hungary

By Frederick Brook Special Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor

_ idly being put back to Moscow

time and it what forces Hungary can stop the process.

The first grim sign of this new Soviet era in Hungary was noted last week at the Danube industrial cent of Komarom in-- Western. Hungary. A ~ huge red star allegedly de by the workers was hoisted onto the roof of factory in town, It was the first of all the hundreds of red stars torn down from Hun- garian factories last October to be formally replaced. It will be the last.

Furthermore, the Communists now have ordered the tion by April 4 of all n to the Soviet Army destroyed du: revotlttion © as pressions of the Hungarian peo- ple’s universal anti-Soviet feeling.

The regime had to remind the nation that Feb, 13 was the 12th anniversary of the entry of 5o- viet troops into Budapest 1945. The people were asked to believe that in 1956, as at the end of World War II, Soviet soldiers T6UeHt Tir the streets of , Bi idapest for the cause of lib- | erty.

is difficult to see

iemmor ials which were the October

ng

in

Affront to Moscow

In’ thie fiela of education the

of Sovietization | has been expressed in a rgcent | order that the Russian language |must again be adopted a compulsory subject --in~ ~~ all _schools,.Only..at the universities will Western languages be al- lowed as alternatives.

The explanation given for this retrograde step was the teachers and textbooks. The real reason is that the lifting of com- pulsory Russian instruction dur- ing the brief patriot triumph last fall was an open affront to Mos- cow which the Kremlin was de- termined to redress at the earliest possible moment.

lrenewed wave

as

tied ‘again to ‘the lammer and sickle of the Eastern bloc. The -main bond is-a fresh $24,000,000 Soviet._reeonstruction.-loan,-the

This renewed eco- dependence. on Moscow became. virtually inevitable after | the Western powers _reiected_all| feelers for financial aid put out in recent weeks by the Kadar | regime.

New Army Readied

On the internal economic front, too, the old policies of the Stalin era are returning. Radio Budapest has announced that | more than 500 of the callective

farms dissolved during the revo-

lution have been again

In the factories, councils, main ance, against the wall or else a unpopular tasks in a deliberate effort to drive a wedge between them and the workers.

Finally, on the all-important military front, the formation of a completely new Hungarian Army has been started. On Feb. government announced the for- imation of an armed guard” of undisclosed make sure that orders and to prevent strikes.

[The Associated Press quoted | ithe government announcement | as saying that the workers’

now set up the workers which were once the organs of patriot resist-

size to

guard’s mission would be “to de- | fend the achievements of social- | to guarantee the mainte- | nance of unhindered calm among |

ism,

the working people and also ‘smooth production, and-to pre- vent the efforts of counterrevo- | utionary elements to regain power and, in pursuit of these ‘ends, to suppoft the armed forces.”

{The announcement said the ‘guardsmen would be volunteers

pe to. over 18 “drawn from people loyal ito socialism.” They will get no |

additional pay.) February 19, 1957

©

inside or™ outside”

not |

restora- |

‘sponta neon ex="

lac . of i

Economically, Hungary is being |

are being steadily pressed | llotted |

19 the |

“workers’ |

if

Asha of Syria: Dr. Mahmoud Fawzi, Foreign Minister of Egypt: Omar Loutfi of Egypt, and Abdul Monem Rifa’i of Jordan,

Sanctions Hover

UN Stiffens Drive _ To Budge Israel

By William R. Frye

United. Nations. Correspondent .of. The Christian. Science..Monitor...

United Nations, N.Y.

Intense efforts are being made here at the United Nations to break the Middle Eastern dead- lock without. forcing a.puble showdown with Israel.

Unless some new compromise formula can .be found, the 80- nation General Assembly seems likely to come face to face with two far-reaching steps:

Condemning Israel for failure to withdraw both its troops and its civil administrators behind the 1949 armistice line;

Calling upon all UN member states to “refrain from giving any military, economic, or fi- nancial assistance to .Israel.so long’ as it has not complied” with repeated withdrawal demands, Way Out Sought

However, there is little spon- taneous enthusiasm here for sanctions against Israel—except, of course, from the Arab states, which have been clamoring for them for-more than two weeks.

The United States would find such...a...slep...embarrassing...po- litically, especially after both the majority and minority lead- ers in the Senate had come out ;}against it. | The Eisenhower administra- tion has done what it could to ‘protect its flanK against such criticism by negotiating with Israel. In the face of repeated rebuffs, Washington’s patience, spokesmen here indicate, is just about exhausted. Nonetheless, sanctions against Israel remain difficult” and explosive to an extreme.

Key Hunted

Brithin, France, and some other Western European states —having little sympathy for President Nasser of Egypt— would prefer to strengthen Is- racl’s hand, perhaps using the presence of Israeli troops on Egyptian soil as bargaining lev- erage for a Suez settlement.

Even the Soviet Union might “find it Rard.«to vote for sanc- tions after having insisted for years, and in tens of thousands of words, that -the-UN-General does not have this power. The Soviets contend that enforcement action shouid be

'taken in the 11-nation: Security:

Couneil, where Soviet delegates may exercise the veto,

Thus on many sides there are ‘consultations aimed at finding some key to unlock. the Middle | East padlock. Nearly all dele- gates would prefer not to have to break it open.

There is,

ing and bargaining can go. Arab cooperation in peace moves is needed, along with that of. Is- rael. And the Arabs are out- raged at the repeated delays— the most recent of which has postponed action until Feb. 21.

To the Arabs, the spectacle of

a great power such as the United |

States beseeching Israel to purge | itself of what they regard as aggression—and bargaining with | Israel over the price to be paid | for so doing—is infuriating. They feel Israel long - since should have been forced to comply unconditionally with UN resohitions:

United States support must he had, however, to be passed and. then made ef- fective. So the Arabs have re- luctantly agreed to wait.

One possible method of break- | ing the deadlock without forcing |

a showdown vote on sanctions, |

as such, privately.

It would be to wait until the Arabs offer their sanctions reso- lution and then amend it, alter- ing. its character from a purely punitive document to an instru- ment aimed at positive goals— to’ be ‘achieved by” punitive means, if necessary.

has been put forward

Amendment Projected

A deadline could be set for the withdrawal of Israeli personnel, | it is suggested; the measures to | be taken after ‘such a with: |

drawal could be spelled out more clearly than before:

deadline, the sanctions automatically date.

This would have the

would take effect on that

lomatic from the United States onto the Arab states. The Arabs would be

forced to decide whether to vote

pressure

the. resojution.down, and lose the |

censure they seek, or vote it up, and “reward” Israel to some extent for its “aggression.”

The “reward”

lar to the assurances the United |

States offered Israel unilaterally on Feb, 11. Israel-rejected them

Feb: 15 ‘on the ground that they’

contained no teeth:

If the UN General Assembly were to vote them, however, they would carry the authority of the world community, not merely of the United States, and hence, it is felt, they might look different to Israel.

Turnpike Authority

Repeal Bid Rejected

The World's Day

Massachusetts: One Dissenter on Road Issue Legislation to repeal the authority of the Massachusetts Turnpike

Authority to extend the East-West toll road from its Weston

terminus to Boston was rejected by the Legislative Committee

| from the committee action.

labor follows |

on Highways and Motor Vehicles. There was only one dissenter

| Middle East: Suez ‘Interim’ Plan Mapped

Britain has

announced that Britain, France, and the United

States will present to United Nations Secretary-General Dag

half to be credited to Egypt.

Hammarskjold an “interim” plan for operating the Suez Canal. It is understood canal tolls would be paid to the World Bank,

National: East Coast Dockers Still Idle

East Coast dockworkers were still idle as a back-to-work signal awaited settlement of remaining local contract disputes in

Baltimore and Norfolk.

Some 4,000 production workers will be dropped from Republic Aviation Corporation’s payroll soon—perhaps more later— because of a time lag between “phasing out” F84-F Thunder-

:

streak manufacture and production buildup for a new fighter.

_ Weather Predictions: Cold Tonight (Page 2) Art, Theater, Music: Page 5. Radio-TV-FM: Page 6

'

with<2 however, a practical limit to which private negotiat-

if sanctions are |

and | then if Israel did not meet the |

advan- | tage of shifting some of the dip- |

would be simi- |

| President Eisenhower,

" President Takes Helm in Mideast

By William H. Stringer Chief, Washington News Bureau, The Christian Science Monitor

Washington

flying to Washington from his

Georgia vacation to assume personal command of the Israeli- | Gaza- Aqaba dispute, cofifronts one of the most difficult for- 7 eign issues he has encountered as President.

But the impasse may not

be totally impassable. With

j israeli Ambassador Abba Eban hastening to Tel Aviv to

present a firsthand account of American attitudes and with Israeli Premier David Ben-Gurion refining his terms for withdrawal of the remaining Israeli forces from Egypt, there 'is room for negotiation and solution.

| Itis clear on all sides, however, that here. fast approaching, is the grave testing point-of United States diplomacy in the-

Middle East.

It is a test in which the Eisenhower administration, switche

jing American policy from tra-™

jditional and almost automatic | Support of Israel in any final | showdown, is seeking to use |the United Nations as an in- | strument of equal justice be- i\tween Arab and Jew,

‘Senate Opposition

It is simultaneously a test in which the new Eisenhower- Dulles policy is encountering sharp and determined opposi-

tion from some of the most in- fluential members of the United | States Senate, who argue that

Washington's willingness to con- sider sanctions against Israel, ,and its refusal.to give an ab- solute guarantee to Israel against future Egyptian dep- redations, do not represent even-handed justice.

The Democratic leader, Senator foe idon B. Johnson of Texas,

has written Secretary of State John Foster Dulle: admonishing him to avoid “coercion” against Israel, and urging that the Unit- ed State s delegation at the Unit- ed Nations be instructed to op-

ose sanctions against Israel alii-ite-skil:”

Senator William F. Knowland of California, Republican leader, thas called sanctions “immoral” and “insupportable” so long as Soviet aggression in Hungary remains unpunished by the United Nations. Some of his friends expect he would resign his membership in. the United States delegation to the United Nations if sanctions should be 'voted against Israel.

The damage whic ' Senate opposition Gould do to the ‘prospects of the Eisenhower ‘Doctrine for the Middle East—~ which the Senate must still ap- prove—can easily be imagined,

massive

Basis for Disagreement.

The senatorial opposition, which will be a palpable. fac- itor when President Eisenhower | confers with Democratic and Re- | publican congressional leaders on Feb. 20, stems from several causes

There is the traditional Demo- cratic support of the Zionist eause, there is some element of |. partisanship,..and...there.is_.the impact which the political friends of Israel can mobilize ‘with their powerful forces. There is “righteous indignation” | in the case of.Senator.Knowland . ,and others when they consider the United States’ different re- sponses in the case of the Israeli attack on Egypt and the Soviet

‘out

repression in Hungary. And there is feeling against an American policy so vigorously based on the United Nations.

The crux of the issue. sum- moning President Eisenhower from his quail-shooting and golfing vacation is, of course, the refusal of Israel to withdraw its troops from the Gulf af Aqaba and the Gaza strip with- precise guarantees from somebody that its shipping will not in the future Be barred from the Gulf of Aqaba and that Egyptian guerrilla raids from the Gaza strip will be pre- vented.

Washington has offered Israel what amounts to assurances, but not guarantees, that, if Israel complies with United Nations directives and pulls its troops out of Egypt at Aqaba and Gaza, then the. United States will seek to have a UN police force stationed at Gaza and will use its influence to maintain free- dom of navigation_at Aqaba. So far, these quiet assurances have not been powerful enough for

Israel.

Whether President Eisenhower, in his conferences with the legislative leaders, will seek some new authority from Cone gress to deal with the situation was not determined in advance. Published reports that Mr. Eisenhower would appear per- sonally in the UN Assembly debate on’ Israel have been denied.

Proceeds Threatened

The congressional legislative leaders summoned to the White House will be anxious to hear how the President himself reads the situation. Many of them have developed a built-in an- tipathy toward and suspicion of Secretary-- Dulles. The’ Demo-- crats reportedly rejected a sug- gestion that Mr. Dulles would conduct the session, arguing that if the situation actually were urgent, then Mr. Eisenhower should fly back and preside him- self.

The United States has been bringing powerful pressures to bear against the Israelis. In the background is the threat that, if sanctions should be voted by the United Nations, some of the private remittances from the United States to Israel, includ- ing results of Israeli bond drives, ... migh be blocked. Israel’s ex- panding economy depends heave ily on private funds from American supporters,

Washington the United States back gt Israel if it

again st

one WwW ithdraw.

Will

sanction does

depends.

Will the United States shoot its -way-up the Guif- of Aqaba, lif necessary, to establish its ‘rights to use that international |waterway? There is no expecta- tion of any sueh contingency:

Will Israel be able to use the ‘Gulf of Aqaba if it gets its troops out of Egypt? Egypt then would have no right to stop Is- raeli ships.

The-newsmen at Secretary of State John Foster Dulles’ weekly conference pressed the secretary for nearly an hour with such | direct questions, but the an- iswers were evasive, qualified, inoncommital. Reporters who ihave become past masters of ithe art of firing direct questions find in Mr. Dulles an. even greater master at the ari of an- swering evasively: To none of the three questions posed above, nor to the scores of others that

‘tumbled over one another for an hour, did the secretary give a flat yes-or-no answer.

Skillful Evasion

Take the question of sanctions _—or rather questions, for there must have been a dozen on this subject alone. Mr, Dulles’ an- swers covered a lot of ground, but never came into focus.

See if you can make out of this whether the United States will or will not-back sanctions against Israel if it continues to defy the United Nations. Mr. Dulles replies in effect: There are all kinds of sanctions moral, economic, military; the word has no clear meaning by itself. The President is seeing congressional leaders on this subject shortly and with an open mind. Some sanctions require congressional action, others can be taken by the executive alone. It is not possible to be specific on this subject at this time.

Or take the matter of the statu®@ of the Gulf of Aqaba | (agen paraphrasing the secre- tary): I expect Americans ships

its forces. from” Egyptian territory? “That

Dulles Parries Quiz

On Israel Sanctions

By Neal Stanford Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor

will go through the straits and up the Gulf of ey, I don't expect they will a Egypt accepted the right-of

~nocent passage” up the AAT oy :

in 1950 and we see no reason why it shouldn't now. Of course things have happened since then,

but I am persuaded the UN and the world have learned a lot of late and are more united and de- termined in backing UN resolu- tions. This may be a turning point in history if we can estab- lish peaceful compliance with UN resolutions. | :

Law Gains Strength |

Of course, I admit that the U.S.S.R. can’t be counted on to respect international law, but respect for such law is growing and as a’ result of this experi-

ence. We are not considering shooting our way through the gulf. since we don’t expect that situation to develop. We also ex- pect Israe] to use the gulf freely once it has complied with the UN resolution; but while the President has the right to use force to protect United States ships in international waters, he does not have the right to go to the protection of the ships of Israel or any other country without congressional approval or a treaty.

The differences between giv- ing Israel “assurances” on- the use of the Gulf of Aqaba and giving it “guarantees” is that the President could do the frst by himself, but he could not do the second without congressional au- thority or a treaty..We have no assurance from Egypt that it will permit Israeli ships through the ‘gulf, but we also have no reason to expect it will not.-Of course there is the possibility it won't but we are not expecting

the Egyptians “oak record in 1950 as access to the gulf.

Bp free

~ Inmates Voice Hopes f for Rel

_ Prisoner Letters Bared

hy ‘sief Writer oy The Christian Vtiehwune °°

What do some of the inmates in the maximum-security prison | at Walpole think of the prison itself and of the new methods | in effect there?

‘One of the prisoners, a man with a long term ahead of him, a man who had been one of the worst troublemakers at. the old State Prison at Charles- town, asked permission recently to write an uncensored letter on the subject to the Commissioner of Correction, Russell G. Oswald.

Commissioner Oswald granted it, and then asked three other men to-do the same. He has given The Christian Science Monitor permission to quote some excerpts from these letters.

One letter began this way: “IT had suicide on my mind dur- ing those initial days of con- finement at the new prison. in South Walpole. Having just received a life sentence ... my outlook on life was reduced to the level of the “tiving dead; that depressing state where you consider yourself to be nothing more than a human organism, devoid of social, moral, and spiritual principles, which keep other people very much alive, but which I had lost owing to the remorse I suffered over my crime.

Suicide Contemplated

“Suicide was the only answer to ‘my . problem, particularly where my wife had just given birth to a son whom I would never see, nor rear, as most par- ents intend to rear their chil- dren. A divorce was in the off- ing; I had been alienated from every member of my family and the majority of my friends, and the sum total of my outlook on

|life was as bleak and as cold as/ the darkest regions of a polar ca

le eventually, he says, de- cided on a method of suicide by

‘inhaling poisonous fumes from a_ | bottle of liquid used in the print | “Over | nine months have passed since || ‘entertained the notion of self-| As I write this, I) |am..allowing myself to cast.a.,

shop, but his letter says,

destruction.

quick glance at this same bottle which could have snuffed out my life nine months ago.

“It is obvious that a transition took place in my life... born out of a belief that South Wal-

pole would not be just another , men |

penal institution where would lose their identity, their _personality, and their individu- -ality as they did in that un- believable ‘snake pit,’ the Charlestown bastille.

“Unafraid to Mix’ "The new administration ‘seemed warm and friendly, un-

keenly interested in the pro- grams *which they instituted,

even to the point where they

donned slacks and baseball caps to enjoy a competitive game of baseball! with an outside group. “At first my thoughts about the new administration were a composite. ef suspicion and. dis- trust. They were ‘novelists’: men with new ideas which were com-

pletely foreign to me and to the:

men around me. They smiled too easily, when others would have

hurled purplish invectives, They | forgave too easily when others would have consigned al! of us!

to the regions of the inferno. “And what's more, they brought hope to us when others

Bay State P

Before Walter D. Achuff resigned as Princinal ilinas of the Massachusetts Correctional Institution at Walpole, his adminis- tration of the ‘state’s new penal philosophy—rehabilitation rather than mere punishment—had produced. substantial re- forms at the prison.

The adjoining articles on this page, including comment from unidentified inmates, written in confidence to Commissioner of Correction Russell G. Oswald, destribe conditions at Walpole

‘Reform Spotlighted |

at~the moment when another administration takes over.

The accomplishments of the Oswald-Achuff administration take on added importance in the face of reports that Mr. Achuff’s resignation was brought about, at least through the actions of individuals in and out of the correc- tional system who from the outset ‘have resisted any change in the method of handling prisoners.

truculent everyone affiliated with the De-.|

ror violence by

| ll their faith and trust in afraid to-mix with-the inmates, Put & 7 ne

in part,

destroyed every vestige of hope | |man who was transferred from | still to serve, not.only.at.Wal-|prison—but.uniless.that-prison -is Charlestown to Walpole as soon pole but perhaps in a federal/run right, and unless you people prison later, and he speaks out| prevent that prison from falling

to the point Where we became and hostile toward

partment of Correction.”

He concludes, “How do I see Walpole today? I see it as a place where broken minds can be ‘healed: where disillusioned men can restore their faith

both. in. Divine Providence and.

in the basic goodness of man.

“I see it as the most prom- ising institution in the country,

‘which cannot go back to the | old methods of reform without

‘experiencing a mad onslaught rien who have

this new administration.

“I see it struggling in its in- fancy, while the sleeping giant of politics and ignorant men can become ruffied to the point where force and violence can undermine all the good that has been accomplished during the past nine months.

"The fact that the root of bit-

_terness has been removed from

my heart should be a testimony in itself that South Walpole has achieved something quite good for-me, and is achieving some- thing quite good for others who are responding to the correc- tional and treatment programs in here.” Another letter

was from a

Fall River Jobless Studied

A series af conferences aimed at solving the

By the Associated Press Washington

changes beyond the control of the community, it is necessary for the city government to seek

\D.] Achuff,

‘before had been scen

been

| formed

as the new prison opened. He had escaped twice from Charles- town and had twice been re- captured, so that his sentence was increased until he had about 25 years hanging over his head. He writes, “Lest you feel that only through my own thoughts and efforts..1-arrived

at what I feel to be the proper | let me describe some | of the physical _influenced me.

attitude,

“The new institution gave me the physical comforts that raised

ime frpm the state of semianimal

Can the meaning

to that of a human being. ‘you understand

‘that hot and cold running water,

a flush toilet, a mirror, a room with a window and the general cleanliness that is evident in this place means to me?

against long sentences. He asks, |

in three years, what is the ad- vantage in confining him for 30

i

i back

paper reporters sensationalists,

or the

political progress

years? If he can be taught the/made might just as well have

lessons of life in the initial pe- | never begun.”

‘riod of his confinement,

before

:

This prisoner then takes some

he develops a. lassitude toward | “space in his letter to deplore in«

| changes that.

mankind and life keeping him in an through a long and able confinement?

institution 1 termin- |

Department Praised “Somehow or other,” this man

adds, “I have faith that the peo- ple of Massachusetts and the

‘administration of our Depart-

‘ment of Correction will find an | periment sueceeding.

“Upon the appointment of the

Commissioner of Correction, Mr. Oswald, and the Principal! Officer of this institution, Mr. [Walter I began to climb the second step in the forward progress of animal to man.

‘Through